Diary of the grandmother of Sudha Murty.

Thursday,

13/04/2016

Today when I touched the feet of my grandmother and when she gifted me the novel, Kashi Yatre, I was in fact elevated to the  heights of satisfaction and glory. I feel free and independent. My teacher has done a good job. I never thought that I could learn Kannada alphabet so soon. At this old age, it is  like a  great dream come true for me. Now I can explore the wonderful world of letters. I get immense pleasure in reading the books. As the novel depicts an old lady who takes after me, it represents the lives of many people. It will take me to different horizons of knowledge. After completing this novel I am going to read a few more books. Thank god before my death I will be able to read enormously. Now I realize the real meaning of freedom and independence. Learning has no barriers of age and gender. Anyone who is determined can learn to read and write. I now regret the days I spent in vain.

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Modal Verbs: an overview with examples $ links

Must – to have to, or to be highly likely. Must can be used to express 100% certainty, a logical deduction or prohibition depending on the context.

  • It must be hard to work 60-hours a week. (probable)
  • You must listen to the professor during the lecture. (necessity)
  • She must not be late for her appointment. (necessity)
  • It must not be very hard to do. (probable)

Can – to be able to, to be allowed to, or possible. Can is a very common modal verb in English. It’s used to express ability, permission and possibility.

  • It can be done. (possible)
  • She can sleepover at Sara’s house this weekend. (allowed to)
  • The car can drive cross country. (able to)
  • It cannot be done. (impossible)
  • The doctor said he cannot go to work on Monday. (not allowed to)
  • She cannot focus with the car alarm going off outside. (not able to)

Could –to be able to, to be allowed to, or possible. Could is used when talking about an ability in the past or for a more polite way to ask permission.

  • Mark could show up to work today. (possible)
  • Could I come with you? (allowed to)
  • When I was in college I could stay up all night without consequence. (able to)
  • Mark could not come to work today. (possible/allowed)
  • Last night I could not keep my eyes open. (able to)

May – to be allowed to, it is possible or probable

  • May I sit down here? (allowed to)
  • I may have to cancel my plans for Saturday night. (possible/probable)
  • She may not arrive on time due to traffic. (possible)

Might – to be allowed to, possible or probable. Might is used when discussing something that has a slight possibility of happening, or to ask for permission in a more polite way.

  • Chris might show up to the concert tonight. (possible/probable)
  • Might I borrow your computer? (Many people don’t say this in American English, instead they would say Can I borrow your computer? Or May I borrow your computer?)

Need – necessary

  • Need I say more? (necessary)
  • You need not visit him today. (not necessary)

Should – to ask what is the correct thing to do, to suggest an action or to be probable. Should usually implies advice, a logical deduction or a so-so obligation.

  • Should I come with her to the dentist? (permission)
  • Joe should know better. (advice/ability)
  • It should be a very quick drive to the beach today. (possibility)
  • Margaret should not jump to conclusions. (advice)

Had better – to suggest an action or to show necessity

  • Evan had better clean up the mess he made. (necessity)
  • Megan had better get to work on time tomorrow. (necessity)

Will – to suggest an action or to be able to

  • John will go to his second period class tomorrow. (action)
  • It will happen. (action)
  • She will see the difference. (be able to)
  • Eva will not drive the Volkswagen. (not do an action)
  • Joe will not study tonight because he has to work. (not be able to)

Would – to suggest an action, advice or show possibility in some circumstances

  • That would be nice. (advise/possibility/action)
  • She would go to the show, but she has too much homework. (action)
  • Mike would like to know what you think about his presentation. (action)
  • modal auxiliaries

Here are some useful links:-

  1. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/auxiliary.htm
  2. http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-modals.php
  3. http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/hilfsverben1.htm
  4. https://www.tesol-direct.com/tesol-resources/english-grammar-guide/modal-auxiliary-verbs/
  5. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/modal-auxiliary-verbs
  6. http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/modal-verbs.html
  7. http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/verbmodal.html

Three men In a Boat movie

Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog) published in 1889, is a humorous account by English writer Jerome K. Jerome of a two-week boating holiday on the Thames from Kingston upon Thames to Oxford and back to Kingston. The book was initially intended to be a serious travel guide, with accounts of local history along the route, but the humorous elements took over to the point where the serious and somewhat sentimental passages seem a distraction to the comic novel. One of the most praised things about Three Men in a Boat is how undated it appears to modern readers – the jokes seem fresh and witty even today.

The three men are based on Jerome himself (the narrator Jerome K. Jerome) and two real-life friends, George Wingrave (who would become a senior manager at Barclays Bank) and Carl Hentschel (the founder of a London printing business, called Harris in the book), with whom Jerome often took boating trips. The dog, Montmorency, is entirely fictional but, “as Jerome admits, developed out of that area of inner consciousness which, in all Englishmen, contains an element of the dog.” The trip is a typical boating holiday of the time in aThames camping skiff This was just after commercial boat traffic on the Upper Thames had died out, replaced by the 1880s craze for boating as a leisure activity.

Following the overwhelming success of Three Men in a Boat, Jerome later published a sequel, about a cycling tour in Germany, titledThree Men on the Bummel (also known as Three Men on Wheels, 1900).

The story begins by introducing George, Harris, Jerome (always referred to as “J.”), and Jerome’s dog, a fox terrier called Montmorency. The men are spending an evening in J.’s room, smoking and discussing illnesses from which they fancy they suffer. They conclude that they are all suffering from “overwork” and need a holiday. A stay in the country and a sea trip are both considered. The country stay is rejected because Harris claims that it would be dull, the sea-trip after J. describes bad experiences of his brother-in-law and a friend on sea trips. The three eventually decide on a boating holiday up the River Thames, from Kingston upon Thames to Oxford, during which they will camp, notwithstanding more of J.’s anecdotes about previous mishaps with tents and camping stoves.

They set off the following Saturday. George must go to work that day, so J. and Harris make their way to Kingston by train. They cannot find the right train at Waterloo Station (the station’s confusing layout was a well-known theme of Victorian comedy) so they bribe a train driver to take his train to Kingston, where they collect the hired boat and start the journey. They meet George further up river atWeybridge.

The remainder of the story describes their river journey and the incidents that occur. The book’s original purpose as a guidebook is apparent as J., the narrator, describes passing landmarks and villages such as Hampton Court PalaceHampton ChurchMagna Carta Island and Monkey Island, and muses on historical associations of these places. However, he frequently digresses into humorous anecdotes that range from the unreliability of barometers for weather forecasting to the difficulties encountered when learning to play the Scottish bagpipes. The most frequent topics of J.’s anecdotes are river pastimes such as fishing and boating and the difficulties they present to the inexperienced and unwary and to the three men on previous boating trips.

The book includes classic comedy set pieces, such as the story of two drunken men who slide into the same bed in the dark, the Plaster of Paris trout in chapter 17, and the “Irish stew” in chapter 14 – made by mixing most of the leftovers in the party’s food hamper:

I forget the other ingredients, but I know nothing was wasted; and I remember that, towards the end, Montmorency, who had evinced great interest in the proceedings throughout, strolled away with an earnest and thoughtful air, reappearing, a few minutes afterwards, with a dead water-rat in his mouth, which he evidently wished to present as his contribution to the dinner; whether in a sarcastic spirit, or with a genuine desire to assist, I cannot say.

— Chapter 16

Other memorable sections include chapter 3’s description of the author’s Uncle Podger creating chaos while hanging a picture, and chapter 4’s discussion of “Advantages of cheese as a travelling companion”.

 

 

Bishop’s Candlesticks by Norman Mckinnel summary and NCERT Solutions

Characters

1.Bishop: He is a very noble and simple person, who always ready to help anyone in distress. He has all the characteristics of a good human being. When he hears the story of the convict, he showed his sympathy for him. He comes to know that the attitude of the convict turned inhuman due to bad treatment in the prison. He treats him like a friend even after the convict stole his candlesticks. He also freed him from the Sergeant by telling a lie. He gives his candlesticks to the convict and helps him to get to Paris. These kind acts of the Bishop prove that he is really a ‘man of god’.

2. Persome: She is the sister of Bishop. She was not generous and kind as her brother and very materialistic. She feels that the simplicity and nobility of the bishop has been misused by the people. She show rude behaviour against oppressed people.

3.  Convict: He was leading a common life before he became a criminal. He had no faith in religion. He had given severe punishment which made him heartless and soulless, but bishop’s noble behaviour changed his mind. He promised Bishop to start his life in a new way.
 

Summary

The play opens with a scene in the kitchen of Bishop’s cottage. Bishop’s younger sister Persome and maid servant, Marie are busy in conversation while soup is being cooked on the stove. Persome is worried that her brother has gone out in extreme cold. When she learns that her brother has gone to see Marie’s ailing mother, she bursts out in anger at the selfishness of the people, who went about troubling him. Persome’s anger is genuine because her brother has already sold off his estate, furniture and other valuables to help the poor and the needy. Persome is shocked to discover further that the Bishop has even sold off his silver salt-cellars to help another ailing lady, to pay her rent.

The Bishop promptly arrives and dispatches Marie to tend to her mother. He gives away his comforter to her to ward off the cold outside. Persome gets furious and says, “You’ll sell your candlesticks next.” The Bishop thanks her for giving him the idea, although he admits that the candlesticks were his proud possessions, a gift from his dying mother and he would not like to part with them. Persome takes leave and the Bishop settles down to read. It is already midnight. A convict enters the room stealthily, seizes the Bishop from behind and demands something to eat. He threatens to kill the Bishop if he raises an alarm. The Bishop is unflustered. He calls the convict ‘son’ and wakes his sister to serve some food and wine to the convict. He also calms down Persome who was frightened to see the knife in the convict’s hand.

The convict pounces on the food greedily. After eating, the convict warms up to the Bishop and relates his sad story. He tells the Bishop that he was once a normal man. He had a wife and a home, but no work. So he stole to feed his sick wife. He was caught and sentenced to serve ten years in prison. He was chained like an animal and beaten mercilessly. The Bishop consoles him and arranges for him to rest there for the night.
The next morning Persome finds that the convict and the silver candlesticks are missing. She raises an alarm and informs the Bishop about the theft. The Bishop is upset, but he refuses to report to the police.

Soon a Sergeant appears with two soldiers and the convict in chains. They had arrested the convict on the suspicion of stealing the Bishop’s candlesticks. The Bishop tells the police that the convict was his friend and he had gifted the candlesticks to him. The police free the convict and go away. The convict is thunderstruck by such kindness. He promises to reform himself and begin his life in a new manner. The Bishop blesses him and gifts the candlesticks to him. He shows him a secret path to Paris, where the convict could lead a safe and respectable life.

 

Best Seller by O. Henry- hypocricy unfolded!

Best Seller, a short story written by O. Henry offers to the reader many fruitful moments of reflection, meditation, introspection and self-evaluation. The hero of the story, John S. Pescud’s hypocrisy is beautifully manifested by the gradual development of the plot by the writer. Undoubtedly, he has an obvious contempt for  ‘best sellers’ as they project unrealistic incidences of marriage.

The narrator was traveling in a chair-car heading towards Pittsburg on business. He swas a passenger hurling one of the best novels, ” the Rose Lady and Trevelyan” to the foor. He recognized the passenger as his old friend John A Pescud, a traveling salesman for a plate-glass company.

During the journey they discussed about the American Bestsellers. Pescud remarked that the story of Bestsellers was so uninteresting because of its unlikely real life situations and its significant connection with ordinary human beings. He also commented that in the nove, “The Rose Lady and Travelyan” the hero Trevelyan, scenes and characters are not consistent with reality and life.

As they talk further on, he told the narrator about his marriage. His wife was Jessie Allyn, the only daughter of the only daughter of the oldest family in Virginia. Her father, Colonel Allyn possessed the reputation of the biggest man and finest quality in Virginia. Pescud told the narrator how they met in a journey where he had least expected to find his life partner. Pescud narrated the incident how he chased her all the way on their journey from Illinois to Cincinnati. Like an American hero he followed her up till her home and decided to talk. the next morning he visited Allyns and not only ment the Colonel but also impressed him by his honest motives.

Finally, Pescud told that two  evening later he got a chance to meet Allyns alone. Colonel inquired about his family and was convinced that he was right for his daughter and got the two married. Pescud told the narrator that he would get down at Coketown in order to buy Petunias cutting for his wife as she was fond of them.

“The Rose Lady and The Trevelyan” might be unrealistic. But it cannot be universalized. There are instances of many human love stories where this apparent ‘geographical boundaries are broken. When it comes to love, and other strong emotions of man, there is no geographical barriers. They are unconditional. For example, one cannot help admiring the charitable works of Mother Theresa who came to India to serve the poor.She was a foreigner, but she was accepted in Indian society because of her sheer unselfish works.

The universal values and human life has bare similarities through out the world. People are moved by love, jealousy, hatred, sense of superiority, fear, sense of security, estrangement, psychological disturbances every nook and corner of the world. Human  beings have the same plight everywhere. One cannot envisage a totally different live any region. It has no constraints geographical bounds.

Life cannot be defined in strict terms. It differs from individual to individual. Most of the time, ‘truth is stranger than fiction’. The bridge  between  the former and latter is shortened day by day. Dreams have become possibilities. Potentialities have become actualities.

Questions for study.

I. Based on your reading of the story, answer the following questions by choosing the correct option.

(a) The narrator says that John was “______ of the suff that heroes are not often lucky enough to be made of.” His tone is sarcastic because __________.

(i) he hated John

(ii) he felt that John was a threat to him

(iii) John was not particularly good-looking

(iv) nobody liked John

Answer: (iii) John was not particularly good-looking

(b) Pescud felt that best-sellers were not realistic as____________.

(i) American farmers had nothing in common with European princesses

(ii) men generally married girls from a similar background

(iii) American men married girls who studied in America

(iv) American men did not know fencing and were beaten by the Swiss guards

Answer: (ii) men generally married girls from a similar background

(c) “Bully”, said Pescud brightening at once. He means to say that ____________.

(i) he is a bully

(ii) his manager was a bully

(iii) he was being bullied by his co-workers

(iv) he was doing very well at his job

Answer: (iv) he was doing very well at his job

(d) The narrator says that life has no geographical bounds implying that __________.

(i) human beings are essentially the same everywhere

(ii) boundaries exist only on maps

(iii) one should work towards the good of mankind

(iv) he was happy to travel to other countries

Answer: (i) human beings are essentially the same everywhere

II. Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) One day last summer the author was travelling to Pittsburg by chair car. What does he say about his co-passengers?

Answer: The compartment was full of affluent people, men and women, sitting in their chair-cars. Women were fashionably dressed in brown silk dresses with laces and veils. Men appeared to be travelling on account of
business.

(b) Who was the passenger of chair No.9? What did he suddenly do?

Answer: The passenger of Chair No. 9 was a man from Pittsburgh named John, an old friend of writer. He suddenly threw his book between his chair and window. The name of book was the ‘The Rose Lady and Trevelyan’, one of the bestselling novels of the present day.

(c) What was John A. Pescud’s opinion about best sellers? Why?

Answer: Pescud believed that the stories about best-sellers were not realistic. The themes revolved around
romances between royals and commoners, fencing, imaginative encounters and all the stuff that never happens in real life. In real life, one would always select a prospective bride from a similar background.

(d) What does John say about himself since his last meeting with the author?

Answer: John, since his last meeting with the author was on the line of general prosperity. He had his salary doubled twice and had bought “a neat slice of real estate.” His company was to sell him some shares of stock the coming year. Much settled in life, he had even taken some time off to experience some romance of which he tells the author next.

(e) How did John’s first meeting with Jessie’s father go? What did the author tell him?

Answer: John’s first meeting with Jessie’s father was successful, since it set the tone for a possible alliance in
future. John not only made his proposal, stated his intentions in clear terms, but also made Jessie’s father
laugh with his anecdotes and stories.

(f) Why did John get off at Coketown?
Answer : Jessie had fancied some petunias in one of the windows and she wanted to plant them in her new house. So Pescud thought of dropping at Coketown to dig or get some cuttings of flowers for her.
(g) John is a hypocrite. Do you agree with this statement? Substantiate your answer.
Answer : Yes, I believe that John is a hypocrite. The word hypocrite means the person tries to shows what he is not. John is such type of man. He said that he did not believe in the romance portrayed in best sellers. He believed the stories too good to be true. However, his own story was fantastical. His wife, the only daughter of the oldest family in Virginia, met him, an ordinary travel salesman of a plate glass company, in a journey where he would have least expected to find his life partner. Their courtship also was too fantastical, and even after all the episode, the fashion in which Pescud criticised love stories of best sellers proves him to be a hypocrite.

(h) Describe John A. Pescud with reference to the following points:

Physical appearance ………………………………………………………………………………..

His philosophy on behaviour …………………………………………………………………….

His profession …………………………………………………………………………………………

His first impression of his wife …………………………………………………………………

His success …………………………………………………………………………………………….

Answer

Physical appearance: John was not particularly good looking

His philosophy on behaviour: A man should be decent and law abiding in her/his hometown

His profession: A travelling salesman for a plate glass company

His first impression of his wife: A very fine girl, whose job was to make this world prettier just by residing in it

His success: Much successful John had had his salary raised twice in the previous year and his company was to give him a few shares as well.

III. Complete the flow chart in the correct sequence as it happens in the story.

Hint: it begins from the time John Pescud first saw Jessie till the time they marry.

(1) Jessie takes a sleeper to Louisville.
(2) Pescud sees a girl (Jessie) reading a book in the train.
(3) Pescud speaks to the girl (Jessie) for the first time.
(4) Pescud follows her but finds it difficult to keep up.
(5) Pescud goes to the village to find out about the mansion.
(6) Jessie arrives at Virginia.
(7) Pescud meets Jessie’s father.
(8) They get married a year later.
(9) Pescud instantly gets attracted to the girl (Jessie)
(10) Jessie informs Pescud that her father would not approve of them meeting.
(11) They meet alone two days later.

Answer

(2) Pescud sees a girl (Jessie) reading a book in the train.
(9) Pescud instantly gets attracted to the girl (Jessie)
(1) Jessie takes a sleeper to Louisville.
(4) Pescud follows her but finds it difficult to keep up.
(6) Jessie arrives at Virginia.
(5) Pescud goes to the village to find out about the mansion
(3) Pescud speaks to the girl (Jessie) for the first time.
(10) Jessie informs Pescud that her father would not approve of them meeting.
(7) Pescud meets Jessie’s father.
(11) They meet alone two days later
(8) They get married a year later.

IV. Irony refers to the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of their literal meaning. Working in pairs, bring out the irony in the following:
(a) The title of the story, “The Best seller”.
Answer: The Best Seller is supposed to be most popular and likeable. But John Pescud throws the best seller “The Rose Lady and Trevelyan” to the floor of the chair car. He later says that all bestsellers have the same unrealistic romantic stories.
(b) Pescud’s claim, “When people in real life marry, they generally hunt up somebody in their own station. A fellow usually picks out a girl who went to the same high-school and belonged to the same singing-society that he did.”

Answer: Pescud told the author that unlike the stories of the bestsellers, in real life people marry somebody in their own place. Someone who has been educated in a similar type of school and has grown up in a similar background. Yet the irony behind his claim is seen in his own life history. The moment he saw the unknown girl on the train, he fell in love with her, without much knowledge about her. He followed her to her destination and even after finding out that she lived in Elmcroft, Virginia, in a 50 room mansion, belonged to the oldest family in the state and her father was a descendent of the belted Earls he did not give up his pursuit. In spite of coming from totally different walks of life-he being an ordinary travelling salesman, their paths met and he went on to marry her.

(c) The name Trevelyan.

Answer : Trevelyan is the hero of the bestseller novel “The Rose Lady and Trevelyan.” Pescud condemns such best sellers and makes fun of its unrealistic characters. But at the end of the story, the author calls Pescud a Trevelyan because he had behaved almost like the hero of the bestseller.

Some links and videos

 

The Best Seller – O Henry

 

 

 

ASL-dos and don’ts

The CBSE has introduced ASL ( ASSESSMENT OF SPEAKING AND LISTENING)  for high school students to assess the speaking and listening skills of students. I feet that it is a good evaluation tool as these two language skills are the two core skills one needs to master English Language. Here are some dos and don’ts

Dos

  • Prepare a write up of what you are going to speak during the speaking assessment.
  • Listen to the examiner properly.
  • Speak with ease.
  • Try to initiate discussion in the problem solving task.
  • Be relevant, don’t ramble.
  • Use connectives and conjunctions to join or link your ideas.

Don’t s

  • Don’t be panic.
  • Don’t read from a paper.
  • Don’t interrupt.
  • Don’t ramble.
  • Don’t be artificial, be yourself.
  • Don’t speak too fast or too slow.
  • Don’t assume anything before hearing properly.

These are some important points to be careful of. Ultimately, be confident and all the best for your exam!

 

Bishop’s candlesticks

Bishop’s Candle Sticks, written by Norman Mckinnell is  a relevant story today. As we hear about terrorist attacks, abuses and atrocities against women through the world, we need to read this drama  thousand times or to enact it in the streets or platforms we could have.

Bishop’s values like compassion, benevolence, generosity, empathy and innocence must be inculcated in every human being. A path of love and not a path of violence would lead to everlasting peace and harmony in the world. Criminals are not born but they are created by the fickle mindedness and vested interests of the society.

People now a days lack the accommodating mentality to accept the odds in life. On the other hand, they tend to think in terms of their name and fame. Self-projection is there everywhere. We need to adopt the humble and simple mental disposition of the bishop in order to create a good mark in the society.

Error Correction/Spotting Errors/English Communicative

Wrong:        I have visited Niagara Falls  last weekend.

Right :         I visited Niagara Falls last weekend.

Wrong        The woman which works here is from   Japan.

Right           The woman who works here is from     Japan.

Wrong        She’s married with a dentist.

Right           She’s married to a dentist.

Wrong        She was boring in the class.

Right           She was bored in the class.

Wrong        I must to call him immediately.

Right           I must call him immediately.

Wrong        Every students like the teacher.

Right           Every student likes the teacher.

Wrong        Although it was raining, but we had   the picnic.

Right           Although it was raining, we had the  picnic.

Wrong        I enjoyed from the movie.

Right           I enjoyed the movie.

Wrong        I look forward to meet you.

Right           I look forward to meeting you.

Wrong        I like very much ice cream.

Right           I like ice cream very much.

Wrong        She can to drive.

Right           She can drive.

Wrong        Where I can find a bank?

Right           Where can I find a bank?

Wrong        I live in United States.

Right           I live in the United States.

Wrong        When I will arrive, I will call you.

Right           When I arrive, I will call you.

Wrong        I’ve been here since three months.

Right           I’ve been here for three months.

Wrong        My boyfriend has got a new work.

Right           My boyfriend has got a new job.

Wrong        She doesn’t listen me.

Right           She doesn’t listen to me.

Wrong        You speak English good.

Right           You speak English well.

Wrong        The police is coming.

Right           The police are coming.

Wrong        The house isn’t enough big.

Right           The house isn’t big enough.

Wrong        You should not to smoke.

Right           You should not smoke.

Wrong        There is seven girls in the class.

Right           There are seven girls in the class.

Wrong        I didn’t meet nobody.

Right           I didn’t meet anybody.

Wrong        My flight departs in 5:00 am.

Right           My flight departs at 5:00 am.

         Words that are confused.

  • advice–a noun meaning helpful information
  • advise–a verb meaning to give helpful information
  • affect–a verb meaning to influence or to display.  Used as a noun in psychology to mean a feeling, an emotion.
  • effect–a noun meaning result.  Used as a verb to mean to cause or bring about.
  • As a general rule, remember that affect is usually a verb and effect is usually a noun.
  • all ready–an adjective meaning prepared
  • already–an adverb meaning prior to a certain time
  • cite–a verb meaning to quote and refer to
  • sight–a verb meaning to see or to aim; a noun meaning an extraordinary visual perception
  • site–a noun meaning a place or a verb meaning to place
  • its–the possessive form of it
  • it’s–the contracted form of it is
  • knew–the past tense of the verb to know
  • new–an adjective meaning recently created, unused
  • know–a verb meaning to have knowledge of
  • no–the negative.
  • loose–an adjective meaning free, unconnected
  • lose–a verb meaning to misplace, to be defeated
  • principal–an adjective meaning chief or main; a noun meaning the head of a school, a leading performer, or a sum of money
  • principle–a noun meaning theory, concept, rule
  • their–the third person plural possessive pronoun.
  • there–an adverb designating place
  • they’re–the contracted form of they are
  • to–a preposition meaning in the direction of
  • too–an adverb meaning also or excessively
  • two–the number 2.
  • whose–the possessive form of who
  • who’s–the contracted form of who is

Twenty Commonly Misspelled Words

  • existence
  • leisure
  • receive
  • forty
  • lose
  • separate
  • friend
  • misspell
  • studying
  • grammar
  • ninety
  • truly
  • independent
  • noticeable
  • writing
  • indispensable
  • occurrence
  • written
  • led
  • precede

Identify the tense and change into indirect speech

  1. She says “What time will you be home?”
  2. She said “What time will you be home?”
  3. I said “I don’t know!”
  4. John said, “There’s an elephant outside the window.”
  5. She said, “I saw him.”
  6. She said, “Today’s lesson is on presentations.”
  7. She said, “I’m teaching English online.”
  8. She said, “I’ve been on the web since 1999.”
  9. She said, “I’ve been teaching English for seven years.” –
  10. She said, “I taught online yesterday.”
  11. She said, “I was teaching earlier.”
  12. She said, “I’d already been teaching for five minutes.”
  13. She said, “I’ll teach English online tomorrow.”
  14. She said, “I can teach English online.”
  15. He said, “It’s been a real day for expectations. “
  16. He asked, “Where were you? “
  17. I’ve been waiting here for an hour.
  18. He said, “didn’t you leave a note?”
  19. She said, “I wasn’t planning on going anywhere.”
  20. He said, “I can see that.”
  21. He asked, “Where’s your coat?”
  22. She said, “I left the house in a hurry.”
  23. They called me when they couldn’t get you.
  24. He said, “I don’t understand your mother.”
  25. You said, “ I ran out to buy some flowers for her”.
  26. She said, “for three hours you’ve been buying flowers.”
  27. He said, “ And then I drove around.”
  28. He said, “But I’m fine now.”
  29. You didn’t go by the hospital?
  30. He said, “ Look, I’m freezing.”
  31. He said, “Let’s go inside.”
  32. Why did the hospital call?
  33. He asked, “Does the doctor need my signature for more tests?”
  34. He said, “We have to go to the hospital. ‘
  35. She said, “I’ve had a terrible”
  36. They said, “We have to go to the hospital.”
  37. Barra asked Ari, ” are you a doctor?”
  38. The dentist told me, “don’t eat candy too much!”
  39. Lina said, ” I must study now.”
  40. Nina said, “I will be going to Seoul tomorrow.”
  41. Cinta said,” I have studied hard for the final exam”
  42. George said, ” I watched the vampire diaries series yesterday.”
  43. Camille said, ” I went to school on foot yesterday.”
  44. The police told me, “show me your license!”
  45. Esme warned me, “don’t go to the forest by yourself.”
  46. Ridho said, ” I have been studied for TOEFL test.”
  47. ‘Congratulations! You have come first in the exams,’ the principal said to me.
  48. Mohit’s father said, ‘We must not watch TV while having our dinner.’
  49. ‘What an expensive car he drives!’ remarked Rahul’s neighbour.
  50. ‘How well you speak German,’ his teammate remarked.
  51. ‘Hurry up!’ said Viru’s mother. ‘The bus will be here in a minute.’
  52. The policeman ordered the truck driver, ‘Show your licence.’
  53. ‘You will have to surrender your passport,’ the officer said to the passenger.
  54. My grandfather said, ‘May you have a long life!’
  55. Mr Jain said to his colleague, ‘Will you please drop me at the airport?’
  56. ‘Light travels in a straight line,’ the teacher explained.
  57. ‘I saw an interesting film last evening,’ said my friend.
  58. The caller asked, ‘May I speak with Shweta?’
  59. ‘May I know who is on the line?’ her father enquired.
  60. ‘Ouch! The bee stung me!’ the child said.
  61.  ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.
  62.  ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
  63.  He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’’
  64.  ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
  65.  The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
  66.  ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl..
  67. Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
  68.  ‘Don’t you know the way home?”’ I said to her.
  69.  ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
  70.  ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
  71.  ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
  72.  ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
  73.  The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
  74. She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
  75.  ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.
  76. “Where is my umbrella?” she asked.
  77. How are you?” Martin asked us.
  78. He asked, “Do I have to do it?”
  79. “Where have you been?” the mother asked her daughter.
  80. “Which dress do you like best?” she asked.
  81. “What are they doing?” she asked.
  82. “Are you going to the cinema?” he asked me.

83. The teacher asked, “Who speaks English?”

Solitary Reaper by William Wordsworth

This is a typical poem from a poet who defined poetry as ‘spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions recollected in tranquility. Its setting is quite interesting and panoramic- a high land lass in a vale profound reaping and singing according to the rhythm of her sickle bending. The picaresque depiction would immediately take the reader to the bounty of nature.

The poet was in the mountain region of Scotland. He saw a ‘highland lass’ working all alone in the field. She was reaping and binding the crops. She was bending over her sickle and singing a sad song in her  local Scottish dialect. The poet was watching all her activities silently but unnoticed.  The song had immediate effect on him. He stopped  there and listened to the song of the reaper with rapt attention. He stood spellbound by the magical voice of the reaper. The song had a bearing on the environment too. The whole deep valley was resounded with the music of the song and it was overflowing with it.

The poet could not understand the theme of the song as the reaper was singing  in her local Scottish dialect. Perhaps she sand about old unhappy things or of the past battles of of natural calamities, loss or pain. Whatever  was the theme, it didn’t matter. The poet found the song unique and sweeter and more thrilling  than the songs of the nightingale a and the cuckoo. The effect of the song on the poet was quite profound. it was not a transitory experience. The music of the song echoed in the heart of the poet long after it was heard no more.