Diary of the grandmother of Sudha Murty.



Today when I touched the feet of my grandmother and when she gifted me the novel, Kashi Yatre, I was in fact elevated to the  heights of satisfaction and glory. I feel free and independent. My teacher has done a good job. I never thought that I could learn Kannada alphabet so soon. At this old age, it is  like a  great dream come true for me. Now I can explore the wonderful world of letters. I get immense pleasure in reading the books. As the novel depicts an old lady who takes after me, it represents the lives of many people. It will take me to different horizons of knowledge. After completing this novel I am going to read a few more books. Thank god before my death I will be able to read enormously. Now I realize the real meaning of freedom and independence. Learning has no barriers of age and gender. Anyone who is determined can learn to read and write. I now regret the days I spent in vain.


Modal Verbs: an overview with examples $ links

Must – to have to, or to be highly likely. Must can be used to express 100% certainty, a logical deduction or prohibition depending on the context.

  • It must be hard to work 60-hours a week. (probable)
  • You must listen to the professor during the lecture. (necessity)
  • She must not be late for her appointment. (necessity)
  • It must not be very hard to do. (probable)

Can – to be able to, to be allowed to, or possible. Can is a very common modal verb in English. It’s used to express ability, permission and possibility.

  • It can be done. (possible)
  • She can sleepover at Sara’s house this weekend. (allowed to)
  • The car can drive cross country. (able to)
  • It cannot be done. (impossible)
  • The doctor said he cannot go to work on Monday. (not allowed to)
  • She cannot focus with the car alarm going off outside. (not able to)

Could –to be able to, to be allowed to, or possible. Could is used when talking about an ability in the past or for a more polite way to ask permission.

  • Mark could show up to work today. (possible)
  • Could I come with you? (allowed to)
  • When I was in college I could stay up all night without consequence. (able to)
  • Mark could not come to work today. (possible/allowed)
  • Last night I could not keep my eyes open. (able to)

May – to be allowed to, it is possible or probable

  • May I sit down here? (allowed to)
  • I may have to cancel my plans for Saturday night. (possible/probable)
  • She may not arrive on time due to traffic. (possible)

Might – to be allowed to, possible or probable. Might is used when discussing something that has a slight possibility of happening, or to ask for permission in a more polite way.

  • Chris might show up to the concert tonight. (possible/probable)
  • Might I borrow your computer? (Many people don’t say this in American English, instead they would say Can I borrow your computer? Or May I borrow your computer?)

Need – necessary

  • Need I say more? (necessary)
  • You need not visit him today. (not necessary)

Should – to ask what is the correct thing to do, to suggest an action or to be probable. Should usually implies advice, a logical deduction or a so-so obligation.

  • Should I come with her to the dentist? (permission)
  • Joe should know better. (advice/ability)
  • It should be a very quick drive to the beach today. (possibility)
  • Margaret should not jump to conclusions. (advice)

Had better – to suggest an action or to show necessity

  • Evan had better clean up the mess he made. (necessity)
  • Megan had better get to work on time tomorrow. (necessity)

Will – to suggest an action or to be able to

  • John will go to his second period class tomorrow. (action)
  • It will happen. (action)
  • She will see the difference. (be able to)
  • Eva will not drive the Volkswagen. (not do an action)
  • Joe will not study tonight because he has to work. (not be able to)

Would – to suggest an action, advice or show possibility in some circumstances

  • That would be nice. (advise/possibility/action)
  • She would go to the show, but she has too much homework. (action)
  • Mike would like to know what you think about his presentation. (action)
  • modal auxiliaries

Here are some useful links:-

  1. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/auxiliary.htm
  2. http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-modals.php
  3. http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/hilfsverben1.htm
  4. https://www.tesol-direct.com/tesol-resources/english-grammar-guide/modal-auxiliary-verbs/
  5. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/modal-auxiliary-verbs
  6. http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/modal-verbs.html
  7. http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/verbmodal.html

Three men In a Boat movie

Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog) published in 1889, is a humorous account by English writer Jerome K. Jerome of a two-week boating holiday on the Thames from Kingston upon Thames to Oxford and back to Kingston. The book was initially intended to be a serious travel guide, with accounts of local history along the route, but the humorous elements took over to the point where the serious and somewhat sentimental passages seem a distraction to the comic novel. One of the most praised things about Three Men in a Boat is how undated it appears to modern readers – the jokes seem fresh and witty even today.

The three men are based on Jerome himself (the narrator Jerome K. Jerome) and two real-life friends, George Wingrave (who would become a senior manager at Barclays Bank) and Carl Hentschel (the founder of a London printing business, called Harris in the book), with whom Jerome often took boating trips. The dog, Montmorency, is entirely fictional but, “as Jerome admits, developed out of that area of inner consciousness which, in all Englishmen, contains an element of the dog.” The trip is a typical boating holiday of the time in aThames camping skiff This was just after commercial boat traffic on the Upper Thames had died out, replaced by the 1880s craze for boating as a leisure activity.

Following the overwhelming success of Three Men in a Boat, Jerome later published a sequel, about a cycling tour in Germany, titledThree Men on the Bummel (also known as Three Men on Wheels, 1900).

The story begins by introducing George, Harris, Jerome (always referred to as “J.”), and Jerome’s dog, a fox terrier called Montmorency. The men are spending an evening in J.’s room, smoking and discussing illnesses from which they fancy they suffer. They conclude that they are all suffering from “overwork” and need a holiday. A stay in the country and a sea trip are both considered. The country stay is rejected because Harris claims that it would be dull, the sea-trip after J. describes bad experiences of his brother-in-law and a friend on sea trips. The three eventually decide on a boating holiday up the River Thames, from Kingston upon Thames to Oxford, during which they will camp, notwithstanding more of J.’s anecdotes about previous mishaps with tents and camping stoves.

They set off the following Saturday. George must go to work that day, so J. and Harris make their way to Kingston by train. They cannot find the right train at Waterloo Station (the station’s confusing layout was a well-known theme of Victorian comedy) so they bribe a train driver to take his train to Kingston, where they collect the hired boat and start the journey. They meet George further up river atWeybridge.

The remainder of the story describes their river journey and the incidents that occur. The book’s original purpose as a guidebook is apparent as J., the narrator, describes passing landmarks and villages such as Hampton Court PalaceHampton ChurchMagna Carta Island and Monkey Island, and muses on historical associations of these places. However, he frequently digresses into humorous anecdotes that range from the unreliability of barometers for weather forecasting to the difficulties encountered when learning to play the Scottish bagpipes. The most frequent topics of J.’s anecdotes are river pastimes such as fishing and boating and the difficulties they present to the inexperienced and unwary and to the three men on previous boating trips.

The book includes classic comedy set pieces, such as the story of two drunken men who slide into the same bed in the dark, the Plaster of Paris trout in chapter 17, and the “Irish stew” in chapter 14 – made by mixing most of the leftovers in the party’s food hamper:

I forget the other ingredients, but I know nothing was wasted; and I remember that, towards the end, Montmorency, who had evinced great interest in the proceedings throughout, strolled away with an earnest and thoughtful air, reappearing, a few minutes afterwards, with a dead water-rat in his mouth, which he evidently wished to present as his contribution to the dinner; whether in a sarcastic spirit, or with a genuine desire to assist, I cannot say.

— Chapter 16

Other memorable sections include chapter 3’s description of the author’s Uncle Podger creating chaos while hanging a picture, and chapter 4’s discussion of “Advantages of cheese as a travelling companion”.



Bishop’s Candlesticks by Norman Mckinnel summary and NCERT Solutions


1.Bishop: He is a very noble and simple person, who always ready to help anyone in distress. He has all the characteristics of a good human being. When he hears the story of the convict, he showed his sympathy for him. He comes to know that the attitude of the convict turned inhuman due to bad treatment in the prison. He treats him like a friend even after the convict stole his candlesticks. He also freed him from the Sergeant by telling a lie. He gives his candlesticks to the convict and helps him to get to Paris. These kind acts of the Bishop prove that he is really a ‘man of god’.

2. Persome: She is the sister of Bishop. She was not generous and kind as her brother and very materialistic. She feels that the simplicity and nobility of the bishop has been misused by the people. She show rude behaviour against oppressed people.

3.  Convict: He was leading a common life before he became a criminal. He had no faith in religion. He had given severe punishment which made him heartless and soulless, but bishop’s noble behaviour changed his mind. He promised Bishop to start his life in a new way.


The play opens with a scene in the kitchen of Bishop’s cottage. Bishop’s younger sister Persome and maid servant, Marie are busy in conversation while soup is being cooked on the stove. Persome is worried that her brother has gone out in extreme cold. When she learns that her brother has gone to see Marie’s ailing mother, she bursts out in anger at the selfishness of the people, who went about troubling him. Persome’s anger is genuine because her brother has already sold off his estate, furniture and other valuables to help the poor and the needy. Persome is shocked to discover further that the Bishop has even sold off his silver salt-cellars to help another ailing lady, to pay her rent.

The Bishop promptly arrives and dispatches Marie to tend to her mother. He gives away his comforter to her to ward off the cold outside. Persome gets furious and says, “You’ll sell your candlesticks next.” The Bishop thanks her for giving him the idea, although he admits that the candlesticks were his proud possessions, a gift from his dying mother and he would not like to part with them. Persome takes leave and the Bishop settles down to read. It is already midnight. A convict enters the room stealthily, seizes the Bishop from behind and demands something to eat. He threatens to kill the Bishop if he raises an alarm. The Bishop is unflustered. He calls the convict ‘son’ and wakes his sister to serve some food and wine to the convict. He also calms down Persome who was frightened to see the knife in the convict’s hand.

The convict pounces on the food greedily. After eating, the convict warms up to the Bishop and relates his sad story. He tells the Bishop that he was once a normal man. He had a wife and a home, but no work. So he stole to feed his sick wife. He was caught and sentenced to serve ten years in prison. He was chained like an animal and beaten mercilessly. The Bishop consoles him and arranges for him to rest there for the night.
The next morning Persome finds that the convict and the silver candlesticks are missing. She raises an alarm and informs the Bishop about the theft. The Bishop is upset, but he refuses to report to the police.

Soon a Sergeant appears with two soldiers and the convict in chains. They had arrested the convict on the suspicion of stealing the Bishop’s candlesticks. The Bishop tells the police that the convict was his friend and he had gifted the candlesticks to him. The police free the convict and go away. The convict is thunderstruck by such kindness. He promises to reform himself and begin his life in a new manner. The Bishop blesses him and gifts the candlesticks to him. He shows him a secret path to Paris, where the convict could lead a safe and respectable life.


Best Seller by O. Henry- hypocricy unfolded!

Best Seller, a short story written by O. Henry offers to the reader many fruitful moments of reflection, meditation, introspection and self-evaluation. The hero of the story, John S. Pescud’s hypocrisy is beautifully manifested by the gradual development of the plot by the writer. Undoubtedly, he has an obvious contempt for  ‘best sellers’ as they project unrealistic incidences of marriage.

The narrator was traveling in a chair-car heading towards Pittsburg on business. He swas a passenger hurling one of the best novels, ” the Rose Lady and Trevelyan” to the foor. He recognized the passenger as his old friend John A Pescud, a traveling salesman for a plate-glass company.

During the journey they discussed about the American Bestsellers. Pescud remarked that the story of Bestsellers was so uninteresting because of its unlikely real life situations and its significant connection with ordinary human beings. He also commented that in the nove, “The Rose Lady and Travelyan” the hero Trevelyan, scenes and characters are not consistent with reality and life.

As they talk further on, he told the narrator about his marriage. His wife was Jessie Allyn, the only daughter of the only daughter of the oldest family in Virginia. Her father, Colonel Allyn possessed the reputation of the biggest man and finest quality in Virginia. Pescud told the narrator how they met in a journey where he had least expected to find his life partner. Pescud narrated the incident how he chased her all the way on their journey from Illinois to Cincinnati. Like an American hero he followed her up till her home and decided to talk. the next morning he visited Allyns and not only ment the Colonel but also impressed him by his honest motives.

Finally, Pescud told that two  evening later he got a chance to meet Allyns alone. Colonel inquired about his family and was convinced that he was right for his daughter and got the two married. Pescud told the narrator that he would get down at Coketown in order to buy Petunias cutting for his wife as she was fond of them.

“The Rose Lady and The Trevelyan” might be unrealistic. But it cannot be universalized. There are instances of many human love stories where this apparent ‘geographical boundaries are broken. When it comes to love, and other strong emotions of man, there is no geographical barriers. They are unconditional. For example, one cannot help admiring the charitable works of Mother Theresa who came to India to serve the poor.She was a foreigner, but she was accepted in Indian society because of her sheer unselfish works.

The universal values and human life has bare similarities through out the world. People are moved by love, jealousy, hatred, sense of superiority, fear, sense of security, estrangement, psychological disturbances every nook and corner of the world. Human  beings have the same plight everywhere. One cannot envisage a totally different live any region. It has no constraints geographical bounds.

Life cannot be defined in strict terms. It differs from individual to individual. Most of the time, ‘truth is stranger than fiction’. The bridge  between  the former and latter is shortened day by day. Dreams have become possibilities. Potentialities have become actualities.

Questions for study.

I. Based on your reading of the story, answer the following questions by choosing the correct option.

(a) The narrator says that John was “______ of the suff that heroes are not often lucky enough to be made of.” His tone is sarcastic because __________.

(i) he hated John

(ii) he felt that John was a threat to him

(iii) John was not particularly good-looking

(iv) nobody liked John

Answer: (iii) John was not particularly good-looking

(b) Pescud felt that best-sellers were not realistic as____________.

(i) American farmers had nothing in common with European princesses

(ii) men generally married girls from a similar background

(iii) American men married girls who studied in America

(iv) American men did not know fencing and were beaten by the Swiss guards

Answer: (ii) men generally married girls from a similar background

(c) “Bully”, said Pescud brightening at once. He means to say that ____________.

(i) he is a bully

(ii) his manager was a bully

(iii) he was being bullied by his co-workers

(iv) he was doing very well at his job

Answer: (iv) he was doing very well at his job

(d) The narrator says that life has no geographical bounds implying that __________.

(i) human beings are essentially the same everywhere

(ii) boundaries exist only on maps

(iii) one should work towards the good of mankind

(iv) he was happy to travel to other countries

Answer: (i) human beings are essentially the same everywhere

II. Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) One day last summer the author was travelling to Pittsburg by chair car. What does he say about his co-passengers?

Answer: The compartment was full of affluent people, men and women, sitting in their chair-cars. Women were fashionably dressed in brown silk dresses with laces and veils. Men appeared to be travelling on account of

(b) Who was the passenger of chair No.9? What did he suddenly do?

Answer: The passenger of Chair No. 9 was a man from Pittsburgh named John, an old friend of writer. He suddenly threw his book between his chair and window. The name of book was the ‘The Rose Lady and Trevelyan’, one of the bestselling novels of the present day.

(c) What was John A. Pescud’s opinion about best sellers? Why?

Answer: Pescud believed that the stories about best-sellers were not realistic. The themes revolved around
romances between royals and commoners, fencing, imaginative encounters and all the stuff that never happens in real life. In real life, one would always select a prospective bride from a similar background.

(d) What does John say about himself since his last meeting with the author?

Answer: John, since his last meeting with the author was on the line of general prosperity. He had his salary doubled twice and had bought “a neat slice of real estate.” His company was to sell him some shares of stock the coming year. Much settled in life, he had even taken some time off to experience some romance of which he tells the author next.

(e) How did John’s first meeting with Jessie’s father go? What did the author tell him?

Answer: John’s first meeting with Jessie’s father was successful, since it set the tone for a possible alliance in
future. John not only made his proposal, stated his intentions in clear terms, but also made Jessie’s father
laugh with his anecdotes and stories.

(f) Why did John get off at Coketown?
Answer : Jessie had fancied some petunias in one of the windows and she wanted to plant them in her new house. So Pescud thought of dropping at Coketown to dig or get some cuttings of flowers for her.
(g) John is a hypocrite. Do you agree with this statement? Substantiate your answer.
Answer : Yes, I believe that John is a hypocrite. The word hypocrite means the person tries to shows what he is not. John is such type of man. He said that he did not believe in the romance portrayed in best sellers. He believed the stories too good to be true. However, his own story was fantastical. His wife, the only daughter of the oldest family in Virginia, met him, an ordinary travel salesman of a plate glass company, in a journey where he would have least expected to find his life partner. Their courtship also was too fantastical, and even after all the episode, the fashion in which Pescud criticised love stories of best sellers proves him to be a hypocrite.

(h) Describe John A. Pescud with reference to the following points:

Physical appearance ………………………………………………………………………………..

His philosophy on behaviour …………………………………………………………………….

His profession …………………………………………………………………………………………

His first impression of his wife …………………………………………………………………

His success …………………………………………………………………………………………….


Physical appearance: John was not particularly good looking

His philosophy on behaviour: A man should be decent and law abiding in her/his hometown

His profession: A travelling salesman for a plate glass company

His first impression of his wife: A very fine girl, whose job was to make this world prettier just by residing in it

His success: Much successful John had had his salary raised twice in the previous year and his company was to give him a few shares as well.

III. Complete the flow chart in the correct sequence as it happens in the story.

Hint: it begins from the time John Pescud first saw Jessie till the time they marry.

(1) Jessie takes a sleeper to Louisville.
(2) Pescud sees a girl (Jessie) reading a book in the train.
(3) Pescud speaks to the girl (Jessie) for the first time.
(4) Pescud follows her but finds it difficult to keep up.
(5) Pescud goes to the village to find out about the mansion.
(6) Jessie arrives at Virginia.
(7) Pescud meets Jessie’s father.
(8) They get married a year later.
(9) Pescud instantly gets attracted to the girl (Jessie)
(10) Jessie informs Pescud that her father would not approve of them meeting.
(11) They meet alone two days later.


(2) Pescud sees a girl (Jessie) reading a book in the train.
(9) Pescud instantly gets attracted to the girl (Jessie)
(1) Jessie takes a sleeper to Louisville.
(4) Pescud follows her but finds it difficult to keep up.
(6) Jessie arrives at Virginia.
(5) Pescud goes to the village to find out about the mansion
(3) Pescud speaks to the girl (Jessie) for the first time.
(10) Jessie informs Pescud that her father would not approve of them meeting.
(7) Pescud meets Jessie’s father.
(11) They meet alone two days later
(8) They get married a year later.

IV. Irony refers to the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of their literal meaning. Working in pairs, bring out the irony in the following:
(a) The title of the story, “The Best seller”.
Answer: The Best Seller is supposed to be most popular and likeable. But John Pescud throws the best seller “The Rose Lady and Trevelyan” to the floor of the chair car. He later says that all bestsellers have the same unrealistic romantic stories.
(b) Pescud’s claim, “When people in real life marry, they generally hunt up somebody in their own station. A fellow usually picks out a girl who went to the same high-school and belonged to the same singing-society that he did.”

Answer: Pescud told the author that unlike the stories of the bestsellers, in real life people marry somebody in their own place. Someone who has been educated in a similar type of school and has grown up in a similar background. Yet the irony behind his claim is seen in his own life history. The moment he saw the unknown girl on the train, he fell in love with her, without much knowledge about her. He followed her to her destination and even after finding out that she lived in Elmcroft, Virginia, in a 50 room mansion, belonged to the oldest family in the state and her father was a descendent of the belted Earls he did not give up his pursuit. In spite of coming from totally different walks of life-he being an ordinary travelling salesman, their paths met and he went on to marry her.

(c) The name Trevelyan.

Answer : Trevelyan is the hero of the bestseller novel “The Rose Lady and Trevelyan.” Pescud condemns such best sellers and makes fun of its unrealistic characters. But at the end of the story, the author calls Pescud a Trevelyan because he had behaved almost like the hero of the bestseller.

Some links and videos


The Best Seller – O Henry




ASL-dos and don’ts

The CBSE has introduced ASL ( ASSESSMENT OF SPEAKING AND LISTENING)  for high school students to assess the speaking and listening skills of students. I feet that it is a good evaluation tool as these two language skills are the two core skills one needs to master English Language. Here are some dos and don’ts


  • Prepare a write up of what you are going to speak during the speaking assessment.
  • Listen to the examiner properly.
  • Speak with ease.
  • Try to initiate discussion in the problem solving task.
  • Be relevant, don’t ramble.
  • Use connectives and conjunctions to join or link your ideas.

Don’t s

  • Don’t be panic.
  • Don’t read from a paper.
  • Don’t interrupt.
  • Don’t ramble.
  • Don’t be artificial, be yourself.
  • Don’t speak too fast or too slow.
  • Don’t assume anything before hearing properly.

These are some important points to be careful of. Ultimately, be confident and all the best for your exam!


Bishop’s candlesticks

Bishop’s Candle Sticks, written by Norman Mckinnell is  a relevant story today. As we hear about terrorist attacks, abuses and atrocities against women through the world, we need to read this drama  thousand times or to enact it in the streets or platforms we could have.

Bishop’s values like compassion, benevolence, generosity, empathy and innocence must be inculcated in every human being. A path of love and not a path of violence would lead to everlasting peace and harmony in the world. Criminals are not born but they are created by the fickle mindedness and vested interests of the society.

People now a days lack the accommodating mentality to accept the odds in life. On the other hand, they tend to think in terms of their name and fame. Self-projection is there everywhere. We need to adopt the humble and simple mental disposition of the bishop in order to create a good mark in the society.

Error Correction/Spotting Errors/English Communicative

Wrong:        I have visited Niagara Falls  last weekend.

Right :         I visited Niagara Falls last weekend.

Wrong        The woman which works here is from   Japan.

Right           The woman who works here is from     Japan.

Wrong        She’s married with a dentist.

Right           She’s married to a dentist.

Wrong        She was boring in the class.

Right           She was bored in the class.

Wrong        I must to call him immediately.

Right           I must call him immediately.

Wrong        Every students like the teacher.

Right           Every student likes the teacher.

Wrong        Although it was raining, but we had   the picnic.

Right           Although it was raining, we had the  picnic.

Wrong        I enjoyed from the movie.

Right           I enjoyed the movie.

Wrong        I look forward to meet you.

Right           I look forward to meeting you.

Wrong        I like very much ice cream.

Right           I like ice cream very much.

Wrong        She can to drive.

Right           She can drive.

Wrong        Where I can find a bank?

Right           Where can I find a bank?

Wrong        I live in United States.

Right           I live in the United States.

Wrong        When I will arrive, I will call you.

Right           When I arrive, I will call you.

Wrong        I’ve been here since three months.

Right           I’ve been here for three months.

Wrong        My boyfriend has got a new work.

Right           My boyfriend has got a new job.

Wrong        She doesn’t listen me.

Right           She doesn’t listen to me.

Wrong        You speak English good.

Right           You speak English well.

Wrong        The police is coming.

Right           The police are coming.

Wrong        The house isn’t enough big.

Right           The house isn’t big enough.

Wrong        You should not to smoke.

Right           You should not smoke.

Wrong        There is seven girls in the class.

Right           There are seven girls in the class.

Wrong        I didn’t meet nobody.

Right           I didn’t meet anybody.

Wrong        My flight departs in 5:00 am.

Right           My flight departs at 5:00 am.

         Words that are confused.

  • advice–a noun meaning helpful information
  • advise–a verb meaning to give helpful information
  • affect–a verb meaning to influence or to display.  Used as a noun in psychology to mean a feeling, an emotion.
  • effect–a noun meaning result.  Used as a verb to mean to cause or bring about.
  • As a general rule, remember that affect is usually a verb and effect is usually a noun.
  • all ready–an adjective meaning prepared
  • already–an adverb meaning prior to a certain time
  • cite–a verb meaning to quote and refer to
  • sight–a verb meaning to see or to aim; a noun meaning an extraordinary visual perception
  • site–a noun meaning a place or a verb meaning to place
  • its–the possessive form of it
  • it’s–the contracted form of it is
  • knew–the past tense of the verb to know
  • new–an adjective meaning recently created, unused
  • know–a verb meaning to have knowledge of
  • no–the negative.
  • loose–an adjective meaning free, unconnected
  • lose–a verb meaning to misplace, to be defeated
  • principal–an adjective meaning chief or main; a noun meaning the head of a school, a leading performer, or a sum of money
  • principle–a noun meaning theory, concept, rule
  • their–the third person plural possessive pronoun.
  • there–an adverb designating place
  • they’re–the contracted form of they are
  • to–a preposition meaning in the direction of
  • too–an adverb meaning also or excessively
  • two–the number 2.
  • whose–the possessive form of who
  • who’s–the contracted form of who is

Twenty Commonly Misspelled Words

  • existence
  • leisure
  • receive
  • forty
  • lose
  • separate
  • friend
  • misspell
  • studying
  • grammar
  • ninety
  • truly
  • independent
  • noticeable
  • writing
  • indispensable
  • occurrence
  • written
  • led
  • precede

Identify the tense and change into indirect speech

  1. She says “What time will you be home?”
  2. She said “What time will you be home?”
  3. I said “I don’t know!”
  4. John said, “There’s an elephant outside the window.”
  5. She said, “I saw him.”
  6. She said, “Today’s lesson is on presentations.”
  7. She said, “I’m teaching English online.”
  8. She said, “I’ve been on the web since 1999.”
  9. She said, “I’ve been teaching English for seven years.” –
  10. She said, “I taught online yesterday.”
  11. She said, “I was teaching earlier.”
  12. She said, “I’d already been teaching for five minutes.”
  13. She said, “I’ll teach English online tomorrow.”
  14. She said, “I can teach English online.”
  15. He said, “It’s been a real day for expectations. “
  16. He asked, “Where were you? “
  17. I’ve been waiting here for an hour.
  18. He said, “didn’t you leave a note?”
  19. She said, “I wasn’t planning on going anywhere.”
  20. He said, “I can see that.”
  21. He asked, “Where’s your coat?”
  22. She said, “I left the house in a hurry.”
  23. They called me when they couldn’t get you.
  24. He said, “I don’t understand your mother.”
  25. You said, “ I ran out to buy some flowers for her”.
  26. She said, “for three hours you’ve been buying flowers.”
  27. He said, “ And then I drove around.”
  28. He said, “But I’m fine now.”
  29. You didn’t go by the hospital?
  30. He said, “ Look, I’m freezing.”
  31. He said, “Let’s go inside.”
  32. Why did the hospital call?
  33. He asked, “Does the doctor need my signature for more tests?”
  34. He said, “We have to go to the hospital. ‘
  35. She said, “I’ve had a terrible”
  36. They said, “We have to go to the hospital.”
  37. Barra asked Ari, ” are you a doctor?”
  38. The dentist told me, “don’t eat candy too much!”
  39. Lina said, ” I must study now.”
  40. Nina said, “I will be going to Seoul tomorrow.”
  41. Cinta said,” I have studied hard for the final exam”
  42. George said, ” I watched the vampire diaries series yesterday.”
  43. Camille said, ” I went to school on foot yesterday.”
  44. The police told me, “show me your license!”
  45. Esme warned me, “don’t go to the forest by yourself.”
  46. Ridho said, ” I have been studied for TOEFL test.”
  47. ‘Congratulations! You have come first in the exams,’ the principal said to me.
  48. Mohit’s father said, ‘We must not watch TV while having our dinner.’
  49. ‘What an expensive car he drives!’ remarked Rahul’s neighbour.
  50. ‘How well you speak German,’ his teammate remarked.
  51. ‘Hurry up!’ said Viru’s mother. ‘The bus will be here in a minute.’
  52. The policeman ordered the truck driver, ‘Show your licence.’
  53. ‘You will have to surrender your passport,’ the officer said to the passenger.
  54. My grandfather said, ‘May you have a long life!’
  55. Mr Jain said to his colleague, ‘Will you please drop me at the airport?’
  56. ‘Light travels in a straight line,’ the teacher explained.
  57. ‘I saw an interesting film last evening,’ said my friend.
  58. The caller asked, ‘May I speak with Shweta?’
  59. ‘May I know who is on the line?’ her father enquired.
  60. ‘Ouch! The bee stung me!’ the child said.
  61.  ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.
  62.  ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
  63.  He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’’
  64.  ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
  65.  The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
  66.  ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl..
  67. Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
  68.  ‘Don’t you know the way home?”’ I said to her.
  69.  ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
  70.  ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
  71.  ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
  72.  ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
  73.  The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
  74. She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
  75.  ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.
  76. “Where is my umbrella?” she asked.
  77. How are you?” Martin asked us.
  78. He asked, “Do I have to do it?”
  79. “Where have you been?” the mother asked her daughter.
  80. “Which dress do you like best?” she asked.
  81. “What are they doing?” she asked.
  82. “Are you going to the cinema?” he asked me.

83. The teacher asked, “Who speaks English?”

Solitary Reaper by William Wordsworth

This is a typical poem from a poet who defined poetry as ‘spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions recollected in tranquility. Its setting is quite interesting and panoramic- a high land lass in a vale profound reaping and singing according to the rhythm of her sickle bending. The picaresque depiction would immediately take the reader to the bounty of nature.

The poet was in the mountain region of Scotland. He saw a ‘highland lass’ working all alone in the field. She was reaping and binding the crops. She was bending over her sickle and singing a sad song in her  local Scottish dialect. The poet was watching all her activities silently but unnoticed.  The song had immediate effect on him. He stopped  there and listened to the song of the reaper with rapt attention. He stood spellbound by the magical voice of the reaper. The song had a bearing on the environment too. The whole deep valley was resounded with the music of the song and it was overflowing with it.

The poet could not understand the theme of the song as the reaper was singing  in her local Scottish dialect. Perhaps she sand about old unhappy things or of the past battles of of natural calamities, loss or pain. Whatever  was the theme, it didn’t matter. The poet found the song unique and sweeter and more thrilling  than the songs of the nightingale a and the cuckoo. The effect of the song on the poet was quite profound. it was not a transitory experience. The music of the song echoed in the heart of the poet long after it was heard no more.

The Man Who Knew Too Much by Alexander Baron Summary

The Man Who Knew  Too Much

Alexander Baron

Private Quelch was not an ordinary soldier under training. Even though he was in his initial years of training, Private Quelch had the attitude of one who had a great ambition in life. He wanted to become an officer soon and rise to higher ranks in the army. For this he worked, day and night, read books and revised his army lessons.

Even though he knew much more than what a soldier should know, Private Quelch had a weakness; he used to exhibit his knowledge where ever he got a chance. He questioned his instructors, corrected his lecturers and sermonized his fellow soldiers.

His tone was that of condscending.He interrupted the trainers. He replies to the sergeant proudly,”it is a matter or intelligent reading”, when the latter asked him how he got all this knowledge. He used to read enormously. He borrowed training manuals and burnt the midnight oil to learn them.

He was Mr. Show off. He was arrogant. He was self-righteous. He even badgered the instructors with questions.

He had even a great stamina. He would ask his fellow trainees/ soldiers for a walk after a tiring ’30 miles walk’. Once he corrected one of his instructors, Corporal Turnbull, while the latter was giving a lecture on hand grenade and got the most shameful punishment that he could ever get; permanent cook house in-charge. Was that the end of a man who knew too much?

It is indisputable that he was industrious, intelligent and ambitious. As it is said. ” Pride goes before fall’, he dug his own pit. His arrogance led to his own downfall. The lesson teaches us the need of humility and moderation in our thoughts, words and deeds however intelligent we could be. We should never be pompous and snobbish. We should never underestimate or belittle anybody.

Lesson at a glance

  • This is an army story. The narrator was under training.
  • Among the trainees, Private Quelch was a remarkable man.
  • The narrator and the rest of the trainees nicknamed him – Professor.
  • Because he knew TOO MUCH about every branch of science he was always the first, the smartest, the fastest, the most noticed, the most discussed and the MOST HATED and envied.
  • He questioned and corrected lecturers during their instructions.
  • He knew answers more accurately than his instructors. His presence was an embarrassment for the instructors.
  • He answered all the questions and left the instructor speechless.
  • He was able to recognize a fighter plane miles away without even looking up it.
  • He saluted the best salutes and was ready to run another round when everyone else was tired and DEAD.
  • He was focussed so he worked hard and read endlessly to understand more.
  • This enormous knowledge once brought him troubles. The trouble was brought by Corporal Turnbull.
  • As usual Private Quelch questioned Corporal Turnbull during his class. With growing dislike for Quelch, the Corporal asked Quelch to continue the class for him.
  • Quelch gave a remarkable class and everyone was left spellbound.
  • Having failed to retaliate/avenge thoughtless and condescending Quelch, the Corporal played another card.
  • He announced that he was looking for the right person for an important appointment in the army institute. He didn’t tell them what the post was and for which department.
  • Thinking that the appointment was very important and prestigious, every eye turned to Quelch, the most knowledgeable and the worthiest for any post!
  • Thus the appointment was made. Quelch was unanimously chosen. And the post?
  • Permanent Cookhouse In-charge!

The dog named Duke by William D. Ellis

Lesson at a Glance

  • In 1953 Chuck Charles Hooper was a favoured young man. Everything was going well for him.
  • He was already a zone sales manager for a chemical company.
  • One day while driving home he met with a horrible car accident.
  • He was taken to a hospital with a subdural haemorrhage and completely paralyzed left side of the body.
  • Hooper remained on the critical for a month.
  • His company asked him to take a year off and promised to create a desk job for him at headquarters.
  • Chuck Hooper’s paralysed arm and leg were given a special treatment. He was made to do some exercise given whirlpool baths and wheeled walker.
  • But Chuck didn’t make much
  • In March they let him out of the hospital. Here, the condition ‘hit a new low’.
  • Finally, Chuck Hooper’s beloved dog Duke was called home from the kennel.
  • When Duke saw Hooper, he jumped on him causing him to fight to keep his balance.
  • The intelligent dog realized his mistake. He never jumped on Chuck Hooper again.
  • The two, Hooper and Duke, used to stare at each other day in, day out.
  • Chuck Hooper felt lonely and was always lost in his thoughts.
  • Duke finally couldn’t stand the boredom and yearned to go out with his master.
  • One evening Chuck hooped the leash onto Duke’s collar and for Duke it was like lighting a fuse.
  • With Hooper standing, the dog walked to the end of the leash and tugged steadily.
  • Leaning back against the pull, Hooper learned to keep his balance without Mercy.
  • Duke’s re-entry into Hooper’s life lifted his numb spirits.
  • The day Duke made Hooper take his first step, the hope was rekindled.
  • By now neighbours on their street were watching the pattern of Hooper’s progress.
  • On June 1, Hooper and Duke walked up to an intersection quite far away.
  • On January 4 Hooper surprised the staff by walking to the local branch office of the company.
  • Hooper further amazed his staff by setting his next objective: March 1, a full day’s work.
  • After March 1, Hooper had no time for physiotherapy and depended completely on Duke.
  • Duke pulled him along the street, increasing Hooper’s stability and endurance.
  • On the evening of October 1957, the Hoopers had guests. Suddenly he heard the screech of brakes outside and looked for Duke.
  • Duke was run over and driven to the animal hospital with severe injuries.
  • He was drugged out but could not survive.
  • A week ago, Hooper was promoted to Assistant National Sales Manager.
  • The promotion order was so worded as if it was a special tribute to Duke. “…….. therefore, to advance our objectives step by step O Charles Hooper is appointed Assistant National Sales Manager.
  • Actually, it was Duke who advanced Hooper’s objective step by step and made him a normal man.


(Learn the underlined words)

Para 1 .. It is a story of 1953. Chuck Hooper was a strong, well-built young man bubbling with energy. Athletic and friendly, he had been a footballer during his university days. Now, he worked for a chemical company as its Zonal Sales Manager. A happy life appeared to lay ahead of this six-feet-one tall man exuding a great zest for life.

Para 2 .. Then tragedy struck. In an autumn evening, he met with a car accident that left him partly paralyzed due to a brain injury.

Para 3 … Chuck’s wife Marcy had him shifted to a hospital, where he lay unable to talk. His movement was impaired. He could only breathe and see. He had double vision.
Marcy had another worry. They had a dog at home. His name was Duke. Marcy telephoned her neighbour asking her to move Duke to a kennel.

Para 4 … Chuck Hooper remained critically down for a month in the hospital. In the fifth week, some people from the company visited him to suggest that he take a year off from job. They offered to create a desk job in the company’s head office to accommodate Chuck.

Para 5 .. After six weeks, the hospital put him in a wheel chair and gave him a wheeled walker to move around. But, Chuck’s arm and legs barely moved. Despite the care of the doctors, he remained immobilized.

Para 6 .. In March, Chuck was discharged from the hospital. Returning home lifted his spirits temporarily, but it drooped (sank) soon. Chuck had no longer the company of other patients. After Marcy left home daily in the morning, the loneliness of home descended on him like a rock. The dog Duke was still lodged in the kennel.

Para 7 .. Finally, it was decided to bring back Duke from the kennel. As a show of defiance, Chuck said he must welcome Duke in a standing position. Duke was very excited to be home and to see Chuck again. Wild with joy he jumped forward at Chuck with all his energy, unaware that his master was so grievously handicapped. Duke’s nails had grown long during his three months in the kennel. Chuck barely managed to stand erect after Duke hit him above his belt. It was a great union.

Para 8 .. Duke, perhaps, assessed his master’s condition correctly. From then on, there was no acrobatics, no uncontrolled show of joy. Duke restrained himself to a position behind his master’s bed.

Para 9 … Duke’s presence, sadly, did not do much for Chuck. The muscular frame of Chuck began to wither slowly, very agonizingly. Chuck could just helplessly look at the ceiling, the outside through the window and at his favourite Duke. The grimace in his face made Marcy very sad. She sobbed quietly.

Para 10 .. Chuck stared at Duck endlessly trying to grapple with his enforced idleness. Duck wanted to say a thousand words to comfort his master. Obviously, he could not. Together, the two souls suffered. Duke could take it no more. He stood up to brake the shackles of his master in one jerk.

Para 11 .. He growled, “Ya-ruff’.

Para 12 .. Chuck shouted, “Be quiet, Duke’.

Para 13 .. Duke walked up to his master’s bed. He tried to coax Chuck to action by lifting his elbow with his nose.

Para 14 .. Chuck tried to push Duke back saying, “Go and run around the house, Chuck.”

Para 15 .. But, Duke wouldn’t heed his master’s orders. He would lie down there looking disapprovingly at Chuck. An hour later, he would approach Chuck again to coax him to move, get going. Chuck stayed put in his position beside the bed.

Para 16 .. One evening Chuck using his un-affected hand hooked the leash to Duke’s leash. He wanted to hold his dog still. It was the signal Chuck was waiting for. He sprang to his feet as if a lightening of hope had struck him. He shook his body excitedly. Chuck was taken aback. He asked Marcy to help him to his feet. Duke’s restless body shook with energy. Marcy held her husband’s elbow while he held on to the dog’s leash. He put the right leg forward and dragged the left foot. It was a crude little step of Chuck that came after months of waiting.

Para 17 …. When the leash became a little loose, Chuck pulled it tight. Chuck struggled to complete the his step somehow. Thrice he repeated his effort before collapsing on his wheelchair exhausted.

Para 18 … Next day the duo started its effort early, with Duke taking the initiative. He was coaxing his master to start his steps. Chuck began to take his steps when Duke pulled the leash, virtually dragging his master. One, two, three and four. It was some progress from the previous day.

Para 19 … Now, didn’t need Marcy to hold him steady. It was Wednesday. With Duke pulling the leash, Chuck began to stagger to his steps. It was five. Thursday, one more – to six. Friday – not very encouraging. Just two steps before Chuck felt too tired to move any more.

Para 20 … By mid-April, it had become a routine exercise for Duke and Chuck. Led by his dog, Chuck ventured out of the house for his ‘learning lessons’. It was quite interesting to watch how Duke, the coach, walked quickly ahead to make the leash taut. Then he waited for Chuck to pull up staggering the short distance. Duke would repeat his quick steps to pull the leash tight. This would signal Chuck to walk his steps to catch up with the waiting Duke. Like this, the walking- stopping-walking continued in short spurts.
The duo set their goals – adding one more fence posts each day’s practice sessions.

Para 21 … Duke’s contribution to Chuck’s recovery and the perseverance of her husband filled Marcy’s heart with hope. She got in touch with the doctor and was asked to let her husband to do physiotherapy exercises. Soon, Chuck began to use pulleys, weights and a few other gadgets. Chuck continued his short walking stints with Duke. The paces increased agonizingly slowly.

Para 22… News of Chuck’s progress was being watched with great interest in the neighbourhood. On June 1, when the duo reached the nearby cross, the onlookers rejoiced. Words of Chuck’s recovery spread soon.

Para 23 … The duo increased their walking practice to twice a day, and they covered longer distances. Duke jealously kept an eye on his master as Chuck kept pushing himself harder and harder. His gait improved.

Para 24 … On January 4, Chuck walked solo. He covered the 200 meters distance between the clinic and the local of his company. His appearance took the office staff completely by surprise. Chuck was as decent as he was professional. He asked the office head Gordon for an update. Evidently, Chuck wanted to resume his duty. He told Gordon Doule that he would work for an hour a day initially. Chuck pointed to an empty desk and declared, “I would work from there. I just need a dictating machine.”

Para 25 … The people in the company’s headquarters were in a quandary. The senior managers obviously could not tell Chuck he was too handicapped to work especially when he had made such a heroic effort to recover. But a sales man had to travel, and one hour a day presence in the office was going to be of not much use to the company. Little did they know about Chuck Hooper’s self-set target that he would start his full day work from March 1.

Para 26 …. March 1 came. Chuck had to stop the physiotherapy sessions as he had no time for it. Due was back in charge. He pulled Chuck faster and faster with his leash exerting him to be more steady and stable while walking. Once, in a dark evening, Duke tripped and fell on the road. Duke maintained vigil over him till he struggled and got back on his feet.

Para 27 .. Thirteen months hence, Chuck worked full time in the job. He was promoted as the regional manager with jurisdiction over four states.

Para 28 …. Marcy, Chuk and Duke moved to anew house on March, 1956. The neighbours were oblivious of Chuck’s earlier travails. But, they saw Chuck walking rather uneasily pulled by his stout dog.

Para 29 … It was October 12, 1957. There was a little party at the Hoopers’. Guests were coming in. Suddenly, Chuck Hooper heard a piercing screeching sound. It was the sound of brakes of a speeding car. Instinctively Chuck looked around for Duke.

Para 30 …. It was Duke. He had been grievously injured by a car. The people around brought the large dog inside Chuck’s house. Marcy, not letting anyone touch the Duke, carried the dog to the animal hospital in her car.

Para 31 … Duke had been fatally hurt to recover despite the vets’ efforts. He breathed his last at 11am the next day.

Para 32 … People who had watched the way Duke had helped Chuk to get walking again wondered how the void would affect Chuk.

Para 33 … Chuk got elevated to the post of Assistant Sales Manager of his company. It was a fitting tribute to a dog which had done so much towards the turn-around of Chuk Hooper.


Q:4:(a): With reference to Hooper, the author says, “Every thing was going for him”, What does it imply?
(i) He had everything that a man aspires for.
(ii) People admired him.
(iii) He did what he wanted.
(iv) He was capable of playing games.
Ans: (i) He had everything that a man aspires for.

(b): Duke never jumped on Chuck again because _____________.
(i) Duke was paralysed and unable to jump
(ii) Chuck was angry with Duke for jumping at him
(iii) Duke realized that Chuck was not well and could not balance himself
(iv) Marcy did not allow Duke to come near Chuck
Ans: (iii) Duke realised that Chuck was not well and could not balance himself.

(c): The author says that Duke ‘knew his job’. The job was _____________.
(i) to look after Chuck
(ii) to get Chuck on his feet
(iii) to humour Chuck
(iv) to guard the house
Ans: (ii) to get Chuck on his feet
(d): “_______ even Duke’s presence didn’t reach Chuck “. Why?
(i) Duke was locked in his kennel and Chuck couldn’t see him.
(ii) Duke hid himself behind the bed post.
(iii) Duke had come to know that Hooper was not well.
(iv) Hooper was lost in his own grief and pain.
Ans: (iv) Hooper was lost in his own grief and pain.
Page no: 19

Q:5: Answer the following questions:
(a): In 1953, Hooper was a favoured young man. Explain.
Ans: In 1953, Charles (Chuck) Hooper was a favoured young man. He had all that a man could aspire for. He was “a hard−charging zone sales manager for a chemical company”. A six-feet-one, who had played on the university football team, was now all settled with his little blonde wife, Marcy. His “big genuine grin” flashed his competitive nature and “everything was going for him”.

(b): They said that they would create a desk job for Hooper at headquarters.
(i) Who are ‘they’?
(ii) Why did they decide to do this?
Ans: (i) “they”in the above sentence refers to the personnel from Hooper’s office that visited him in the hospital.
(ii) Hooper met with an accident and was hospitalised.He was paralysed.When few men from his office came to meet him in the hospital,on seeing his condition said this.His mobility was restricted due to paralysis..

(c): Duke was an extraordinary dog. What special qualities did he exhibit to justify this? Discuss.
Ans: Duke was a rough playing Doberman Pinscher. When Chuck met with the accident and was brought back home Duke also was brought back from the kennel. When the dog saw his master “he was a 23-killo missile of joy”. He jumped on Chuck above the belt in excitement. Chuck couldn’t balance, so fought to maintain it. That was it, Duke knew what had happened. From then on he never did the same. He took a post beside his master’s bed and never jumped on him again. He sensed the delicate condition of his master and later he was the main agent in the improvement of Chuck’s condition.
From the story, it seems that Duke knew what had happened to Hooper, he would come up and poke Chuck’s left arm and try to lift it up. One evening while the dog was cajoling(enticing) his master Hooper casually hooked( bent)  leash( chain) in Duke’s collar with his good hand and that charged the dog. The first time, it was just couple of steps till the wheel chair. However, Duke was dogged (determined)  to make Chuck walk. They were a team now. Hooper’s neighbourhood people say that the Dog knew what his responsibility was. They had a tremendous coordination. The dog would “pull his leash taut then stand and wait. The man would drag himself abreast of the dog and then the dog would surge out to the end of the leash and wait again”.
Gradually Hooper became totally dependent on Duke and didn’t need physiotherapy further. It was Duke alone who could do what he did. The only thing that the narrator says he was unsure of was whether Duke knew what he was doing, but then the narrator says that he believed that Duke knew.

(d): What problems did Chuck present when he returned to the company headquarters?
Ans: On January 4, Chuck visited the local branch. This had been one of the district offices under his jurisdiction as zone manager. The staff was amazed to see him return, Charles Hooper told Gordon Doule, the manager, to bring him all the updates of the time Hooper had stayed away. He started working one hour every day; he chose the empty desk in the ware house. Hooper’s move presented problems in the company’s headquarters. Chuck was fighting hard to come back, so nobody could tell him that he couldn’t handle the job. Beside it was a job of sales, what good can a salesperson do, “who cannot move around, and can work only one hour a day?” However, Hooper had the target set in his mind, March 1, a full day’s work. It was Duke who would pull Chuck all the way till the office and then bring him back home as well. All said that the dog knew his responsibility “to get Chuck back on his feet”. After thirteen months of meditation, Charles Hooper was promoted to Regional Manager covering more than four states.

(e): Why do you think Charles Hooper’s appointment as Assistant National Sales Manager is considered to be a tribute to Duke?
Ans: Duke was not an ordinary pet; he was a Doberman with exceptional intelligence. The finesse with which he understood the delicate condition of Chuck is commendable. It was not physiotherapy and not any other drug or exercise that made Chuck walk, but Duke and Duke alone!
After the accident when Duke was brought back on Chuck’s return to home, the dog took just one incident to realise the ailment of his master. The dog just needed to be hooked once causally and Duke with his leash and the dog became resolute to make his master stand on his feet. It was Duke who made Charles Hooper reach the office despite all odds and took the responsibility to take Charles Hooper to the office and also bring him back home.
It was not just Chuck’s meditation but Duke’s too that after thirteen months Hooper was promoted to Regional Manager covering more than four states. People of their new neighbourhood, they moved into, didn’t know the story of Chuck and Duke. “All they knew was that their new neighbour walked like a struggling mechanical giant and that he was always pulled by a rampageous dog that acted as if he owned the man.”
After some time when Chuck was promoted to Assistant National Sales Manager, the words drafted by the headquarters of the chemical company said, “… therefore, to advance our objectives step by step, Charles Hooper is appointed Assistant National Sales Manager”, as all knew that without Duke it would not have been possible for Chuck to make such quick improvement and tribute Hooper’s